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Methods of Issue of Shares_ Public Offer, Private Placement, and More

Methods of Issue of Shares: Public Offer, Private Placement, and More

In the world of corporate finance, issuing shares is a pivotal process that allows companies to raise capital. This capital can be used for various purposes, including expansion, debt repayment, and operational improvements. There are several methods of issue of shares, each with its own set of advantages and challenges. Understanding these methods of issue of share is crucial for both companies looking to raise funds and investors seeking to make informed decisions. Here, we explore the primary methods of issue of shares, including private placement, offer for sale, and public issue or initial public offer.

Private Placement

Private placement is a method of issue of shares where a company offers its shares directly to a select group of investors, typically institutional investors, without issuing a prospectus to the general public. This approach is regulated under Section 42 of the Companies Act, 2013, and the Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of Securities) Rules, 2014. It allows companies to raise funds quickly and efficiently, bypassing the stringent regulatory requirements and public scrutiny associated with a public offering. The process involves issuing an offer letter to eligible investors, specifying the terms of the offer, and obtaining their consent before allotting shares.


  • Speed and Efficiency: Private placement offers a faster route to raise capital compared to public offerings, as it does not require extensive regulatory approvals.
  • Lower Costs: Companies benefit from reduced regulatory and marketing expenses since they are not obligated to issue a prospectus.
  • Flexibility: Companies have the flexibility to negotiate terms directly with investors, tailoring the offer to meet specific funding needs.


  • Discount Demands: Institutional investors may negotiate for shares at a discounted price, potentially diluting the company’s valuation.
  • Ownership Concentration: Private placements can lead to a concentration of ownership among a few investors, limiting the diversification of shareholders.
  • Limited Public Access: The general public does not have the opportunity to participate in private placements, restricting broader investor access.

Offer for Sale

In an offer for sale, a company sells its shares to an intermediary, such as an issue house or financial institution, which then offers these shares to the public at a higher price. This method of issue of shares is governed by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) regulations and guidelines, ensuring transparency and fair practices in the secondary market transactions.


  • Reduced Selling Effort: The intermediary manages the selling process, including marketing and distribution, reducing the burden on the issuing company.
  • Guaranteed Sale: The intermediary guarantees the sale of the entire issue, providing assurance to the issuing company.
  • Cost Savings: Offer for sale avoids stamp duty payable on the transfer of shares since the intermediary handles the transaction.


  • Loss of Premium: The premium gained from selling shares at a higher price in the secondary market is retained by the intermediary, not benefiting the issuing company directly.

Sale Through Intermediaries

This method of issue of shares involves appointing intermediaries like banks, financial institutions, and stockbrokers to market and distribute shares on a commission basis. It is regulated under SEBI regulations and involves strict compliance with guidelines to ensure investor protection and market integrity.


  • Market Reach: Intermediaries have extensive networks and expertise in marketing securities, reaching a wider investor base.
  • Reduced Administrative Burden: Companies can delegate the complexities of marketing and distributing shares to professional intermediaries, focusing on core business operations.


  • Uncertainty: The success of the offering depends on market conditions and investor appetite, with no guarantee that all shares will be sold within the expected timeframe.

Sale Through Managing Brokers

Managing brokers provide advisory services on the timing and terms of share issues, assisting companies in pre-issue preparation, prospectus drafting, and stock exchange listing. This method of issue of shares ensures compliance with SEBI regulations and enhances market credibility through professional guidance.


  • Expert Guidance: Brokers offer valuable insights and support throughout the share issuance process, optimizing pricing strategies and market timing.
  • Enhanced Market Reach: Brokers leverage their networks and reputation to attract potential investors, increasing visibility and investor confidence.


  • Cost: Engaging managing brokers involves fees and commissions, adding to the overall cost of the share issuance.

Privileged Subscriptions (Rights Issue)

In a rights issue, existing shareholders are offered new shares on a pro-rata basis, regulated under Section 62 of the Companies Act, 2013, and SEBI regulations. This method of issue of shares is cost-effective and simpler than public issues, benefiting from the company’s established shareholder base and enhancing shareholder loyalty.


  • Cost-Effective: Rights issues involve lower issuance costs compared to public offerings, as they bypass the need for extensive marketing and regulatory compliance.
  • Loyal Shareholders: Existing shareholders are more likely to subscribe to the issue if the company has a favourable track record and growth prospects.


  • Dependent on Performance: The success of a rights issue hinges on the company’s financial performance and investor confidence, impacting subscription rates.

Public Issue or Initial Public Offer (IPO)

An IPO involves offering shares to the public for the first time through a prospectus, regulated under the SEBI (Issue of Capital and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2018. This method of issue of shares provides companies with access to a large pool of investors, enhancing visibility, and credibility in the market.


  • Wide Distribution: IPOs enable companies to raise significant capital from a diverse investor base, supporting expansion and growth initiatives.
  • Increased Visibility: Listing on stock exchanges increases the company’s profile, attracting institutional investors and improving market liquidity.


  • High Costs: IPOs incur substantial expenses related to regulatory compliance, marketing, and underwriting fees, impacting overall issuance costs.
  • Complex Process: Companies must adhere to stringent regulatory requirements, including disclosure norms and market scrutiny, which can prolong the issuance timeline.

Process of Issuing Shares

The process of issuing shares involves several stages governed by the Companies Act, 2013, SEBI regulations, and other applicable guidelines:

  1. Issuing of Prospectus: Companies must prepare and issue a prospectus detailing the share issue, financial information, and offering terms. The prospectus must comply with SEBI regulations to ensure transparency and investor protection.
  2. Receipt of Application: Investors interested in subscribing to the shares submit applications along with the required funds to designated banks or intermediaries.
  3. Share Allocation: Once the minimum subscription threshold is met, shares are allocated to investors based on their applications. Allotment letters are issued to successful applicants, confirming their shareholding.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the primary benefit of a private placement?

Private placement allows a company to raise funds quickly and efficiently with lower costs compared to public offerings.

How does an offer for sale work?

A company sells its shares to an intermediary, which then sells them to the public at a higher price through an ‘offer for sale’ document.

What are the advantages of a rights issue?

Rights issues are cost-effective and simpler compared to public issues, as they involve offering new shares to existing shareholders on a pro-rata basis.

What is the role of managing brokers in share issuance?

Managing brokers advise companies on the timing and terms of share issues, assist in pre-issue canvassing, issuing a prospectus, and getting listed on stock exchanges.

Why is an IPO considered complex?

An IPO involves significant regulatory and marketing expenses and requires thorough compliance with regulatory requirements, making it a complex process.


The methods of issue of shares provide companies with versatile options to raise capital, each suited to different needs and circumstances. Private placement, offer for sale, and public issues each have their unique advantages and challenges. Companies must carefully consider their financial goals, regulatory obligations, and investor base when choosing the most appropriate method of issue of shares. Investors, on the other hand, should evaluate the potential risks and rewards associated with each method of issue of shares before making investment decisions. Understanding these methods of issue of shares is crucial in navigating the complex landscape of corporate finance. With a team of experienced professionals, InstaFiling ensures that companies comply with regulatory requirements, draft accurate prospectuses, and efficiently manage the entire share issuance process. From private placements to public offerings, InstaFiling provides tailored solutions that help companies achieve their financial goals while maintaining transparency and investor confidence. Additionally, investors can benefit from our insights and analysis, helping them make informed investment decisions and navigate the complexities of corporate finance with ease.

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