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Public Offer vs. Private Placement: Choosing the Best Path for Raising Capital

Raising capital is a critical aspect for any company looking to expand its operations, invest in new projects, or improve its financial stability. In India, companies have various methods to raise funds, with Public Offer and Private Placement being two prominent avenues. Understanding the differences between these methods is crucial for company executives, investors, and legal professionals. This article delves into the key differences between Public Offer and Private Placement, with a focus on their legal aspects under Indian company law.

Public Offer

A Public Offer refers to the sale of securities (shares, debentures, etc.) by a company to the general public. This process is highly regulated and requires compliance with several legal and procedural requirements.

Key Characteristics of Public Offer

  1. Regulatory Oversight: Public Offers are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Companies must adhere to SEBI’s guidelines and regulations to ensure transparency and protect investors’ interests.
  2. Prospectus Requirement: Companies must issue a prospectus, which is a detailed document outlining the company’s financial status, business model, risks, and other relevant information. The prospectus must be filed with the Registrar of Companies (RoC) and SEBI.
  3. Eligibility Criteria: Not all companies can go for a Public Offer. Typically, companies must meet certain criteria, such as a minimum net worth, profitability, and compliance history.
  4. Listing on Stock Exchange: After the Public Offer, the company’s securities are listed on a stock exchange, allowing them to be traded publicly. This provides liquidity to the investors.
  5. Cost and Time: Conducting a Public Offer is time-consuming and costly due to the extensive regulatory requirements, marketing expenses, and compliance costs.

Legal Framework for Public Offer

The legal framework for Public Offers in India is primarily governed by the following:

  • Companies Act, 2013: Sections 23 to 41 of the Companies Act, 2013, detail the provisions related to Public Offers.
  • SEBI (Issue of Capital and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2018 (ICDR Regulations): These regulations set forth the disclosure requirements and procedures for a Public Offer.
  • Listing Agreements with Stock Exchanges: Post-offer, companies must comply with the listing agreements of the stock exchanges where their securities are listed.

Private Placement

Private Placement involves the sale of securities to a select group of investors rather than the general public. This method is less regulated compared to Public Offers and offers more flexibility to the issuing company.

Key Characteristics of Private Placement

  1. Selective Investors: Securities are offered to a limited number of sophisticated investors, such as institutional investors, banks, or high-net-worth individuals. The number of investors in a Private Placement cannot exceed 200 in a financial year.
  2. Confidentiality: Private Placements are not as publicized as Public Offers. This can help in maintaining confidentiality about the company’s strategic decisions.
  3. Simplified Procedure: The regulatory requirements for Private Placements are simpler and less stringent compared to Public Offers. Companies do not need to issue a prospectus, but they must issue a private placement offer letter (PAS-4).
  4. Cost and Time: Private Placements are usually quicker and less expensive to execute due to the streamlined regulatory process and fewer disclosure requirements.

Legal Framework for Private Placement

The legal framework for Private Placements in India is governed by:

  • Companies Act, 2013: Sections 42 and 62 of the Companies Act, 2013, along with the Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of Securities) Rules, 2014, provide the regulatory guidelines for Private Placements.
  • SEBI Regulations: Although SEBI’s regulations are less stringent for Private Placements, certain provisions under the SEBI (Issue of Capital and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2018, and SEBI (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2015, may apply, especially if the company is listed.

Differences Between Public Offer and Private Placement

AspectPublic OfferPrivate Placement
AudienceOpen to the general public.Restricted to a select group of investors, not exceeding 200 in a financial year.
Regulatory RequirementsHighly regulated with stringent disclosure and compliance requirements, including the issuance of a prospectus.Less regulated, with simpler procedures and fewer disclosure requirements.
Cost and TimeMore expensive and time-consuming due to extensive regulatory compliance and marketing efforts.Quicker and less costly due to streamlined regulatory processes.
LiquiditySecurities are listed on a stock exchange, providing liquidity to investors.Securities are not publicly traded, resulting in lower liquidity.
ConfidentialityRequires public disclosure of extensive information, reducing confidentiality.Maintains greater confidentiality regarding the company’s financial and strategic information.


Frequently Asked Questions

Why do companies opt for private placement to raise capital?

Speedy Financing: Private placement allows companies to raise capital quickly, often within a few months, compared to the lengthy procedures involved in a public share issue Economical: Private placement is cost-effective for companies, as it involves fewer regulatory requirements and lower marketing expenses compared to public offerings.

Are private placements good for investors?

Private placements offer investors a flexible and cost-effective way to invest in promising businesses that may not be available through public offerings. It provides opportunities to participate in the growth of companies before they go public.

What is the downside of private placement?

Unlike publicly traded securities, private placements lack liquidity. Investors may find it challenging to sell their shares quickly, which can affect the attractiveness of the investment and potentially impact the valuation.

What is the minimum amount for private placement?

The minimum investment size for a private placement offers or invitation is Rs. 20,000 of the face value of the securities. This threshold ensures that investors commit a minimum amount to participate in private placement opportunities.


Choosing between a Public Offer and a Private Placement depends on the company’s objectives, financial position, and regulatory comfort. While a Public Offer can provide substantial capital and liquidity, it comes with higher costs and regulatory scrutiny. On the other hand, Private Placement offers a more flexible, cost-effective, and confidential way to raise funds, suitable for companies looking to avoid the complexities of a Public Offer. InstaFiling helps companies with Private Placements & Public Offer by making sure they meet all the legal requirements smoothly. We assist in preparing documents like placement memoranda and handling filings with regulators. Our goal is to simplify the process, making it cost-effective and efficient while keeping everything confidential when needed.

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